1. Tuberculosis (TB) is a notifiable infectious disease. Timely diagnosis, prompt
treatment & adherence to medication are key factors in combating TB.
2. Screening of TB should be done in high risk groups including all close contacts
(especially household contacts).
3. Patients with symptoms of TB should have sputum smear for acid fast bacilli
(AFB), mycobacterium culture & sensitivity (C&S), & chest x-ray (CXR) done.
Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAAT) plays a role in rapid detection of
Mycobacterium tuberculosis & multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB).
4. TB serology should not be used to diagnose pulmonary TB (PTB) or
extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).
5. For latent TB infection (LTBI), tuberculin skin test (TST) is the preferred method
for diagnosis. Interferon Gamma Release Assay may be used as an alternative.
Treatment should be considered for high risk patients.
6. A daily antiTB regimen is recommended for both intensive & maintenance phases.
A proper defaulter tracing system should be in place to detect early interruption in
treatment and follow-up. Poorly managed TB will lead to drug-resistant TB.
7. Fixed-Dose Combinations are preferred to separate-drugs combination for the
treatment of TB.
8. Infants & children under 5 years of age with close contact are at high risk of
developing active TB.
9. Active TB should be ruled out in all HIV-positive patients.
10. Preventive measures should be employed to reduce TB risk among healthcare
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